نام ملک بلندی (میٹرز میں)
1۔ ماؤنٹ ایورسٹ نیپال 8848
2۔ کے ٹو پاکستان 8611
3۔کنچن چنگا نیپال 8586
4۔ لہوٹزے پیک نیپال 8501
5۔ماکالو پیک نیپال 8462
6۔چو اویو پیک نیپال 8201
7۔دھولگری نیپال 8167
8۔مناسلو نیپال 8156
9۔نانگاپربت پاکستان 8125
10۔ایناپورنا نیپال 8091
11۔گاشابروم-1 پاکستان 8068
12۔براڈ پیک پاکستان 8047
13۔گاشابروم-2 پاکستان 8035
14۔ششاپنگما نیپال 8013
The first seven attempts on Everest, starting with a reconnaissance in 1921, approached the mountain from Tibet, where a route to the summit via the North Col and North Ridge seemed possible. All these attempts were unsuccessful.
Starting in 1951, expeditions from Nepal grew closer and closer to the summit, via the Khumbu Icefall, the Western Cwm, over the Geneva Spur to the South Col, and up the Southeast Ridge. In 1953 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit. Since the first successful ascent, many other individuals have sought to be the first at various other accomplishments on Everest, including many alternative routes on both the north and south sides.
Italy's Reinhold Messner has climbed Everest twice without oxygen, once in four days. He is also the first to solo climb Everest, which he did in 1980. Ten years earlier, Yuichiro Miura of Japan had been the first person to descend the mountain on skis. In 1975, Junko Tabei, also of Japan, was the first woman to climb Everest. The first disabled person to attempt Everest was American Tom Whittaker, who climbed with a prosthetic leg to 24,000 feet in 1989, 28,000 feet in 1995, and finally reached the summit in 1998. The first blind man to reach the summit was Erik Weihenmayer in 2001. The record for most ascents belongs to Sherpa Ang Rita, who has reached the summit ten times. Nazir Sabir is the first and so far only Pakistani mountaineer to have successfully climbed this peak.
Overall, more than 600 climbers from 20 countries have climbed to the summit by various routes from both north and south. Climbers' ages have ranged from nineteen years to sixty. At least 100 people have perished, most commonly by avalanches, falls in crevasses, cold, or the effects of thin air.
Mount Everest is also known by the Tibetan name Chomolangma (Goddess Mother of the Snows), and by the Nepali name Sagarmatha (Mother of the Universe).
[ltr]K2 is the second highest mountain in the world, and is thought by many climbers to be the ultimate climb. Its giant pyramid peak towers in isolation, 12,000 feet above the wide Concordia glacial field at the head of the Baltoro Glacier. The sheer icy summit is flanked by six equally steep ridges. Each of its faces presents a maze of precipices and overhangs.
K2 was long considered unclimbable. Attempts in 1902, 1909, 1934, 1938, 1939 and 1953 all failed. The first successful ascent in 1954 started with over 500 porters, 11 climbers, and six scientists. The final ascent was made by a team of two after their oxygen supply had run out, and an emergency descent was made in darkness.
The mountain's remoteness had rendered it invisible from any inhabited place, so apart from an occasional local reference as Chogori (meaning Great Mountain), it had no other name prior to Montgomery's survey. Since that time, the name Mount Godwin-Austen has occasionally been used, in honor of the man who directed the survey. For the most part, however, K2 has been the name of choice, and has even evolved into Ketu, the name used by the Balti people who act as porters in the region.
As inspiring as Kangchenjunga's beauty is that at least the first three parties to ascend the mountain never attempted the final few feet to the summit out of voluntary respect for the Sikkimese, who consider the summit sacred. The successful British expedition of 1955 set the standard by stopping a few feet short of the actual summit, in honor of the local religion. The next two ascents were teams led respectively by India's Colonel N. Kumar in 1977, and by British climber Doug Scott in 1979. These parties also honored the tradition. Various origins of the name Kangchenjunga have been debated, but it is often translated as Five Treasuries of the Great Snow, a reference to the five high peaks that rise from the surrounding glaciers.
Cho Oyu was first attempted in 1952 by an expedition led by Eric Shipton and including Tom Bourdillon, but technical difficulties at an ice cliff above 6,650m (21,820ft) proved beyond their abilities. (Today, these ice cliffs are normally ascended using fixed ropes.) Cho Oyu was first climbed on October 19, 1954 via the northwest ridge by Herbert Tichy, Joseph Jöchler and Sherpa Pasang Dawa Lama of an Austrian expedition.
Dhaulagiri was first climbed on May 13, 1960 by Kurt Diemberger, Peter Diener, Ernst Forrer, Albin Schelbert, Nyima Dorji and Nawang Dorji, members of a Swiss/Austrian expedition. The expedition leader was Max Eiselin; they used the Northeast Ridge route which had been reconnoitered one year earlier by an Austrian expedition led by Fritz Moravec. This was also the first Himalayan climb supported by a fixed-wing aircraft. The aircraft, a Pilatus PC-6, crashed during the approach and was later abandoned on the mountain.
The vast majority of ascents to date have been via the first ascent route, which is the "Normal Route" on the mountain. However ascents have been made from almost every direction.
Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956 by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition. In 1972, fifteen members of a Korean expedition were killed at 22,800 feet when an avalanche buried their camp. Two years later, the news from the mountain was better: An all-female Japanese expedition successfully ascended to the summit, thereby becoming the first women to climb an 8,000 meter peak.
The mountain is easy to reach (China's Karakoram Highway approaches the base of the mountain from the north), but is not so easy to climb. Unstable glaciers and frequent storms and avalanches have proved hazardous, most notably to the German party who first attempted the peak. Nanga Parbat was first climbed on July 3, 1953 by Austrian climber Hermann Buhl, a member of a German-Austrian team. By the time of this expedition, 31 people had already died trying to make the first ascent. The final push for the summit was dramatic: Buhl continued alone, after his companions had turned back, and spent a night standing up on the descent. Buhl is the only mountaineer to have made the first ascent of an eight-thousander solo (at least at the summit) and without oxygen.
The second ascent of Nanga Parbat was via the Diamir Face, in 1962, by Germans Toni Kinshofer, S. Löw, and A. Mannhardt. This route is now the "standard route" on the mountain. The Kinshofer route does not ascend the middle of the Diamir Face, which is threatened by avalanches from massive hanging glaciers. Instead it climbs a buttress on the left side of the face.
In 1970 Reinhold and Günther Messner reached the summit via a direct route on the huge, difficult Rupal Face; this was the third ascent of the mountain. Their descent was epic: they were unable to descend their ascent route, and instead made the first traverse of the mountain, going down the Diamir Face. Unfortunately Günther was killed in an avalanche on the Diamir. (Messner's account of this incident was disputed, and cast a further shadow over this achievement. In 2005 Günther's remains were found on the Diamir Face.)
In 1978 Reinhold Messner returned to the Diamir Face and achieved the first completely solo ascent (i.e. always solo above Base Camp) of an 8,000m peak.
Gasherbrum I was designated K5 (meaning the 5th peak of the Karakoram) by T.G. Montgomery in 1856 when he first spotted the peaks of the Karakoram from more than 200 km away during the Great Trigonometric Survey of India. In 1892, William Martin Conway provided the alternate name, Hidden Peak, in reference to its extreme remoteness.
Gasherbrum I was first climbed on July 5, 1958 by Pete Schoening and Andy Kauffman of an eight-man American expedition led by Nicholas B. Clinch. Richard K. Irvin, Tom Nevison, Tom McCormack, Bob Swift and Gil Roberts were also members of the team.
The first ascent of Broad Peak was made on June 9, 1957 by Fritz Wintersteller, Marcus Schmuck, Kurt Diemberger, and Hermann Buhl of an Austrian expedition led by Marcus Schmuck. A first attempt by the team was made on May 29 where Fritz Wintersteller and Kurt Diemberger reached the forepeak (8,030m). This was also accomplished without the aid of supplemental oxygen or high altitude porters and without base camp support.
The standard route for ascent to the peak is via the SW ridge as it is relatively free of objective hazards such as ice falls and avalanches. A typical expedition lasts 7 to 8 weeks with climbing permits costing about $7,500 USD for five climbers. Gasherbrum II was first climbed on July 8, 1956 by Fritz Moravec, Josef Larch and Hans Willenpart of an Austrian expedition.
The Tibetan name shi sha sbang ma means "crest above the grassy plains". The Chinese name Xixiabangma is a phonetic rendition of the Tibetan name. (In Sanskrit, the mountain is called Gosainthan, which means "place of the saint"). Another interpretation, based on the spelling Shisha-Pangma, is that the name means, literally, "Sherpa Woman."
Shishapangma is located in south-central Tibet, a few kilometres from the border with Nepal. It is the only eight-thousander entirely within Chinese territory. It is the highest peak in the Jugal Himal, which is contiguous with, and often considered a part of, the Langtang Himal. The combined Jugal/Langtang Himal straddles the Tibet/Nepal border. Since it is on the dry north side of the Himalayan crest, and further away from the lower terrain of Nepal, it has somewhat less dramatic vertical relief than most other major Himalayan peaks.
Shishapangma was first climbed on May 2, 1964 by a Chinese expedition. On 14 January 2005, Piotr Morawski and Simone Moro made the first ascent in calendar winter. Approximately 22 people have died climbing Shishapangma, including noted American alpinist Alex Lowe and veteran Portuguese climber Bruno Carvalho. Nevertheless, Shishapangma is one of the easiest eight-thousanders to climb. The standard route ascends from the north side, and boasts relatively easy access, with vehicle travel possible to base camp at 5,000 metres (16,400 feet). More technically demanding are the routes on the steeper Southwest Face, which involve 2,200 metres (7,218 feet) of ascent on a 50 degree slope. These are ideal for a (difficult) alpine style ascent.