Tuesday, 1 September 2009

دنیا کے بلند ترین پہاڑ

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اس دنیا میں چودہ ایسی چوٹیاں ہیں جن کی سطح سمندر سے اونچائی آٹھ ہزار میٹر سے زیادہ ھے۔ ان میں سے نو چوٹیاں نیپال میں ہیں اور پانچ پاکستان میں ہیں۔ ترتیب کے لحاظ سے ان چوٹیوں کے نام یہ ہیں
نام ملک بلندی (میٹرز میں)
1۔ ماؤنٹ ایورسٹ نیپال 8848
2۔ کے ٹو پاکستان 8611
3۔کنچن چنگا نیپال 8586
4۔ لہوٹزے پیک نیپال 8501
5۔ماکالو پیک نیپال 8462
6۔چو اویو پیک نیپال 8201
7۔دھولگری نیپال 8167
8۔مناسلو نیپال 8156
9۔نانگاپربت پاکستان 8125
10۔ایناپورنا نیپال 8091
11۔گاشابروم-1 پاکستان 8068
12۔براڈ پیک پاکستان 8047
13۔گاشابروم-2 پاکستان 8035
14۔ششاپنگما نیپال 8013




Peak 1 - Mount Everest
[ltr]Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Its elevation of 29,035 feet (8,850 meters) was determined using GPS satellite equipment on May 5, 1999. It was previously believed to be slightly lower (29,028 feet /8,848 meters), as determined in 1954 by averaging measurements from various sites around the mountain.
The first seven attempts on Everest, starting with a reconnaissance in 1921, approached the mountain from Tibet, where a route to the summit via the North Col and North Ridge seemed possible. All these attempts were unsuccessful.
Starting in 1951, expeditions from Nepal grew closer and closer to the summit, via the Khumbu Icefall, the Western Cwm, over the Geneva Spur to the South Col, and up the Southeast Ridge. In 1953 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit. Since the first successful ascent, many other individuals have sought to be the first at various other accomplishments on Everest, including many alternative routes on both the north and south sides.
Italy's Reinhold Messner has climbed Everest twice without oxygen, once in four days. He is also the first to solo climb Everest, which he did in 1980. Ten years earlier, Yuichiro Miura of Japan had been the first person to descend the mountain on skis. In 1975, Junko Tabei, also of Japan, was the first woman to climb Everest. The first disabled person to attempt Everest was American Tom Whittaker, who climbed with a prosthetic leg to 24,000 feet in 1989, 28,000 feet in 1995, and finally reached the summit in 1998. The first blind man to reach the summit was Erik Weihenmayer in 2001. The record for most ascents belongs to Sherpa Ang Rita, who has reached the summit ten times. Nazir Sabir is the first and so far only Pakistani mountaineer to have successfully climbed this peak.
Overall, more than 600 climbers from 20 countries have climbed to the summit by various routes from both north and south. Climbers' ages have ranged from nineteen years to sixty. At least 100 people have perished, most commonly by avalanches, falls in crevasses, cold, or the effects of thin air.
Mount Everest is also known by the Tibetan name Chomolangma (Goddess Mother of the Snows), and by the Nepali name Sagarmatha (Mother of the Universe).



Peak 2 - K2
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[ltr]K2 is the second highest mountain in the world, and is thought by many climbers to be the ultimate climb. Its giant pyramid peak towers in isolation, 12,000 feet above the wide Concordia glacial field at the head of the Baltoro Glacier. The sheer icy summit is flanked by six equally steep ridges. Each of its faces presents a maze of precipices and overhangs.
K2 was long considered unclimbable. Attempts in 1902, 1909, 1934, 1938, 1939 and 1953 all failed. The first successful ascent in 1954 started with over 500 porters, 11 climbers, and six scientists. The final ascent was made by a team of two after their oxygen supply had run out, and an emergency descent was made in darkness.
The mountain's remoteness had rendered it invisible from any inhabited place, so apart from an occasional local reference as Chogori (meaning Great Mountain), it had no other name prior to Montgomery's survey. Since that time, the name Mount Godwin-Austen has occasionally been used, in honor of the man who directed the survey. For the most part, however, K2 has been the name of choice, and has even evolved into Ketu, the name used by the Balti people who act as porters in the region.

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Peak 3 - Kangchenjunga
[ltr]Kangchenjunga is the third highest mountain in the world. From 1838 until 1849, it was believed to be the highest. It is an enormous mountain mass, and many satellite peaks rise from its narrow icy ridges. It is located on the border of Nepal and Sikkim, just 46 miles northwest of Darjeeling. It is the most easterly of the great 8,000 meter peaks of the Himalaya. Though not successfully climbed until 1955, it was first attempted in 1905, but four members of that international party were killed in an avalanche. The threat of avalanches and mudslides is omnipresent in the area, which receives very heavy precipitation throughout much of the year.
As inspiring as Kangchenjunga's beauty is that at least the first three parties to ascend the mountain never attempted the final few feet to the summit out of voluntary respect for the Sikkimese, who consider the summit sacred. The successful British expedition of 1955 set the standard by stopping a few feet short of the actual summit, in honor of the local religion. The next two ascents were teams led respectively by India's Colonel N. Kumar in 1977, and by British climber Doug Scott in 1979. These parties also honored the tradition. Various origins of the name Kangchenjunga have been debated, but it is often translated as Five Treasuries of the Great Snow, a reference to the five high peaks that rise from the surrounding glaciers.




Peak4 - Lhotse
Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain in the world. It is located in Nepal. Its long east-west crest is located immediately south of Mount Everest, and the summits of the two mountains are connected by the South Col, a vertical ridge that never drops below 8,000 meters. Lhotse is best known for its proximity to Mount Everest and the fact that climbers ascending the standard route on that peak spend some time on its northwest face. It is sometimes mistakenly identified as the south peak of the Everest massif. No serious attention was turned to climbing Lhotse until after Everest had finally been ascended. Lhotse was first climbed in 1956 as an alternative route to the summit of Everest. In addition to the main summit, there are two subsidiary peaks, Lhotse Shar, which is immediately east of the main summit, and Nuptse, a high peak on the mountain's west ridge. Lhotse is a dramatic peak in its own right, due to its tremendous south face. This rises 3.2 km (1.98 mi) in only 2.25 km (1.4 mi) of horizontal distance, making it the steepest face of this size in the world. The south face has been the scene of many failed attempts, some notable fatalities, and a very few ascents.


Peak 5 - Makalu
[ltr]Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world. Itis situated in Nepal. It is an isolated peak, located just 14 miles east of Mount Everest. Its size alone is impressive, but its structure, that of a perfect pyramid with four sharp ridges, makes this mountain all the more spectacular. Makalu is one of the harder eight-thousanders, and is considered one of the most difficult mountains in the world to climb. The mountain is notorious for its steep pitches and knife-edged ridges that are completely open to the elements. The final ascent of the summit pyramid involves technical rock climbing. Makalu is the only Nepalese 8,000 m peak which has yet to be climbed in true winter conditions. It has proved to be a challenging climb, as only five of its first sixteen attempts were successful. Previously, it had been admired and studied by several Everest parties, but like so many other giants in the Khumbu region, it was not attempted until the summit of Everest had been attained in 1954. Chomo Lonzo is a subsidiary peak of Makalu, rising just north of the higher summit, separated by a narrow saddle. On or about January 27, 2006, the French mountaineer Jean-Christophe Lafaille disappeared on Makalu while trying to make the first winter ascent.



Peak 6 - Cho Oyu
[ltr]Cho Oyu is the sixth highest mountain in the world, located in Nepal at a short distance to the west from Everest (the highest) and Lhotse (the fourth highest) in the Khumbu region of Eastern Nepal along the Tibetan border. Its towering peak stands with Everest well above the surrounding mountains. It became a familiar landmark to climbers ascending Everest's north face. Just west of Cho Oyu is the Nangpa La, a 19,000-foot glacier pass, the main trade route between the Khumbu Sherpas and Tibet. Cho Oyu's proximity to the Nangpa La has earned it the distinction among some climbers as being the easiest 8,000 meter peak. It was the third such peak climbed, and the first climbed in Autumn.
Cho Oyu was first attempted in 1952 by an expedition led by Eric Shipton and including Tom Bourdillon, but technical difficulties at an ice cliff above 6,650m (21,820ft) proved beyond their abilities. (Today, these ice cliffs are normally ascended using fixed ropes.) Cho Oyu was first climbed on October 19, 1954 via the northwest ridge by Herbert Tichy, Joseph Jöchler and Sherpa Pasang Dawa Lama of an Austrian expedition.



Peak 7 - Dhaulagiri
[ltr]Dhaulagiri, whose name means White Mountain, is located in Nepal and is the seventh highest mountain in the world. It is an enormous Himalayan massif, located in north central Nepal. It is the highest mountain located entirely within Nepal. After its discovery by the western world in 1808, it replaced Ecuador's Chimborazo (20,561 ft.) as the postulated highest mountain in the world. It maintained this standing for nearly 30 years, until the discovery of Kangchenjunga (28,169 ft.), which was then falsely believed to be the world's highest mountain. Dhaulagiri's crest stretches for thirty miles, lending structure to an otherwise tangled topography of twisting ridges, glaciers, and ice falls. Along the main crest, several pyramid-shaped peaks rise. Four of these summits, numbered from east to west, rise above 25,000 feet.
Dhaulagiri was first climbed on May 13, 1960 by Kurt Diemberger, Peter Diener, Ernst Forrer, Albin Schelbert, Nyima Dorji and Nawang Dorji, members of a Swiss/Austrian expedition. The expedition leader was Max Eiselin; they used the Northeast Ridge route which had been reconnoitered one year earlier by an Austrian expedition led by Fritz Moravec. This was also the first Himalayan climb supported by a fixed-wing aircraft. The aircraft, a Pilatus PC-6, crashed during the approach and was later abandoned on the mountain.
The vast majority of ascents to date have been via the first ascent route, which is the "Normal Route" on the mountain. However ascents have been made from almost every direction.



Manaslu - 8th Highest Peak of the World
[ltr]Manaslu is the highest peak of the Gurkha massif, and is the eighth highest mountain in the world. It is located in Nepal about forty miles east of Annapurna, the tenth highest mountain. The mountain's long ridges and valley glaciers offer feasible approaches from all directions, and it culminates in a peak that towers steeply above its surrounding landscape, and is a dominant feature when seen from afar. The name Manaslu is derived from the Sanskrit word Manasa and can be roughly translated as Mountain of the Spirit. It is also known as Kutang.
Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956 by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition. In 1972, fifteen members of a Korean expedition were killed at 22,800 feet when an avalanche buried their camp. Two years later, the news from the mountain was better: An all-female Japanese expedition successfully ascended to the summit, thereby becoming the first women to climb an 8,000 meter peak.



Nanga Parbat - 9th Highest Peak of World
[ltr]Nanga Parbat, whose name means Naked Mountain, is the ninth highest mountain in the world and second highest in Pakistan, and the westernmost mountain of the Himalayas. It separates the Valleys of kashmir, Chilas and Astore and is visible from KKH while travelling between Chilas and Gilgit. It is such a huge mass of rock and ice that it is often termed as not highst but the biggest mountain of the world. Its vast snowy face is a powerful spectacle when seen from the arid Indus Valley, approaching the mountain from the west. Here the mountain towers in isolation over 22,000 feet from the valley floor. Nanga Parbat has tremendous vertical relief over local terrain in all directions. To the south, Nanga Parbat boasts what is often referred to as the highest mountain face in the world: the Rupal Face rises an incredible 4,600 m (15,000 feet) above its base. To the north, the complex, somewhat more gently sloped Rakhiot Flank rises 7,000 m (22,966 feet) from the Indus River valley to the summit in just 27 km, one of the 10 greatest elevation gains in so short a distance on Earth.
The mountain is easy to reach (China's Karakoram Highway approaches the base of the mountain from the north), but is not so easy to climb. Unstable glaciers and frequent storms and avalanches have proved hazardous, most notably to the German party who first attempted the peak. Nanga Parbat was first climbed on July 3, 1953 by Austrian climber Hermann Buhl, a member of a German-Austrian team. By the time of this expedition, 31 people had already died trying to make the first ascent. The final push for the summit was dramatic: Buhl continued alone, after his companions had turned back, and spent a night standing up on the descent. Buhl is the only mountaineer to have made the first ascent of an eight-thousander solo (at least at the summit) and without oxygen.
The second ascent of Nanga Parbat was via the Diamir Face, in 1962, by Germans Toni Kinshofer, S. Löw, and A. Mannhardt. This route is now the "standard route" on the mountain. The Kinshofer route does not ascend the middle of the Diamir Face, which is threatened by avalanches from massive hanging glaciers. Instead it climbs a buttress on the left side of the face.
In 1970 Reinhold and Günther Messner reached the summit via a direct route on the huge, difficult Rupal Face; this was the third ascent of the mountain. Their descent was epic: they were unable to descend their ascent route, and instead made the first traverse of the mountain, going down the Diamir Face. Unfortunately Günther was killed in an avalanche on the Diamir. (Messner's account of this incident was disputed, and cast a further shadow over this achievement. In 2005 Günther's remains were found on the Diamir Face.)
In 1978 Reinhold Messner returned to the Diamir Face and achieved the first completely solo ascent (i.e. always solo above Base Camp) of an 8,000m peak.

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Annapurna 1 - 10th Highest Peak of the world
[ltr]Annapurna is an enormous Himalayan massif, the tenth highest mountain in the world. It was the first 8,000 meter mountain to be successfully climbed. It is located east of a great gorge cut through the Himalaya by the Kali Gandaki river. The mountain has glaciers on its western and northwestern slopes which drain into this gorge. Annapurna is a Sanskrit name that can be translated as Goddess of the Harvests or more simply The Provider. Of Annapurna's many high peaks, five are labeled using some variation of the name Annapurna. Of these, the two highest (Annapurna I and II), stand like bookends at the western and eastern ends of the massif.
Annapurna I was the first 8,000 metre peak to be climbed. Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, of a French expedition reached the summit on June 3, 1950. The south face of Annapurna was first climbed in 1970 by Don Whillans and Dougal Haston, members of a British expedition led by Chris Bonington which included the alpinist Ian Clough, who was killed by a falling ice-pillar during the descent. In 1978, The American Women's Annapurna Expedition, a team led by Arlene Blum, became the first American team to climb Annapurna I. The expedition was also remarkable for being composed entirely of women. Sadly, Alison Chadwick-Onyszkiewicz and Vera Watson died during this climb. (Vera Watson was the wife of computer scientist John McCarthy). On 3 February 1987, Polish climbers Jerzy Kukuczka and Artur Hajzer made the first winter ascent of Annapurna I.
The Annapurna peaks are among the world's most dangerous mountains to climb, with a fatality rate of 40%. As of 2005, only 103 successful summits have been made, for the loss of 56 lives, many to the avalanches for which the mountain is known. Climbers killed on the peak include famed Russian climber Anatoli Boukreev in 1997 and Christian Kuntner in 2005.







Gasherbrum I - 11th Highest Peak of World
Gasherbrum I (also known as Hidden Peak or K5) is the 11th highest peak on Earth, located in Pakistan near Concordia. Actually there is an amphitheatre of 4 Eight thousanders around concordia. Others are K-2,Broad Peak and Gasharbrum-II Gasherbrum I is part of the Gasherbrum massif, located in the Karakoram region of the Himalaya. Gasherbrum is often claimed to mean "Shining Wall", presumably a reference to the highly visible face of the neighboring peak Gasherbrum IV; but in fact it comes from "rgasha" (beautiful) + "brum" (mountain) in Balti, hence it actually means "beautiful mountain."
Gasherbrum I was designated K5 (meaning the 5th peak of the Karakoram) by T.G. Montgomery in 1856 when he first spotted the peaks of the Karakoram from more than 200 km away during the Great Trigonometric Survey of India. In 1892, William Martin Conway provided the alternate name, Hidden Peak, in reference to its extreme remoteness.
Gasherbrum I was first climbed on July 5, 1958 by Pete Schoening and Andy Kauffman of an eight-man American expedition led by Nicholas B. Clinch. Richard K. Irvin, Tom Nevison, Tom McCormack, Bob Swift and Gil Roberts were also members of the team.






Broad Peak - 12th Highest Peak of the World
Broad Peak (originally named K3) is the 12th highest mountain on Earth, located in Pakistan near the border of Pakistan and China. Broad Peak is part of the Gasherbrum massif and is about 8 kilometres (5 miles) from K2. Broad Peak was originally named K3 right after the naming of K2 but on closer inspection by a later party, it was discovered that the summit was over 1½ kilometres (1 mile) long, thus was named as "Broad Peak". Broad Peak is known locally as Faichan Kangri. The literal translation of "Broad Peak" to Phalchan Kangri is not accepted among the Baltis.
The first ascent of Broad Peak was made on June 9, 1957 by Fritz Wintersteller, Marcus Schmuck, Kurt Diemberger, and Hermann Buhl of an Austrian expedition led by Marcus Schmuck. A first attempt by the team was made on May 29 where Fritz Wintersteller and Kurt Diemberger reached the forepeak (8,030m). This was also accomplished without the aid of supplemental oxygen or high altitude porters and without base camp support.









Gasherbrum II - 13th Highest Peak of the World
Gasherbrum II (also known as K4) is the 13th highest mountain on Earth, located in Pakistan near the Baltoro Glacier. Baltoro Glacier is home to world's highest peaks and 21 out of world's 50 highest peaks are located on the sides of this mighty glacier of Pakistan. Gasherbrum II is the third highest peak of the Gasherbrum massif, located in the Karakoram range of the Himalaya. Other two are Gasherbrum-I and Broad Peak. Along with K-2, these four peaks make the greatest amphitheatre of highest peaks around Concordia.
The standard route for ascent to the peak is via the SW ridge as it is relatively free of objective hazards such as ice falls and avalanches. A typical expedition lasts 7 to 8 weeks with climbing permits costing about $7,500 USD for five climbers. Gasherbrum II was first climbed on July 8, 1956 by Fritz Moravec, Josef Larch and Hans Willenpart of an Austrian expedition.



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Shishapangma - 14th Highest Peak of the World
[ltr]Shishapangma is the fourteenth highest mountain in the world and the lowest of the eight-thousanders. It was the last 8,000 metre peak to be climbed, due to its location entirely within China and the restrictions on outside visitation to the region imposed by the Chinese during the 1950s and later.
The Tibetan name shi sha sbang ma means "crest above the grassy plains". The Chinese name Xixiabangma is a phonetic rendition of the Tibetan name. (In Sanskrit, the mountain is called Gosainthan, which means "place of the saint"). Another interpretation, based on the spelling Shisha-Pangma, is that the name means, literally, "Sherpa Woman."
Shishapangma is located in south-central Tibet, a few kilometres from the border with Nepal. It is the only eight-thousander entirely within Chinese territory. It is the highest peak in the Jugal Himal, which is contiguous with, and often considered a part of, the Langtang Himal. The combined Jugal/Langtang Himal straddles the Tibet/Nepal border. Since it is on the dry north side of the Himalayan crest, and further away from the lower terrain of Nepal, it has somewhat less dramatic vertical relief than most other major Himalayan peaks.
Shishapangma was first climbed on May 2, 1964 by a Chinese expedition. On 14 January 2005, Piotr Morawski and Simone Moro made the first ascent in calendar winter. Approximately 22 people have died climbing Shishapangma, including noted American alpinist Alex Lowe and veteran Portuguese climber Bruno Carvalho. Nevertheless, Shishapangma is one of the easiest eight-thousanders to climb. The standard route ascends from the north side, and boasts relatively easy access, with vehicle travel possible to base camp at 5,000 metres (16,400 feet). More technically demanding are the routes on the steeper Southwest Face, which involve 2,200 metres (7,218 feet) of ascent on a 50 degree slope. These are ideal for a (difficult) alpine style ascent.

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آپ بھی اپنا تبصرہ تحریر کریں

اہم اطلاع :- غیر متعلق,غیر اخلاقی اور ذاتیات پر مبنی تبصرہ سے پرہیز کیجئے, مصنف ایسا تبصرہ حذف کرنے کا حق رکھتا ہے نیز مصنف کا مبصر کی رائے سے متفق ہونا ضروری نہیں۔

اگر آپ کے کمپوٹر میں اردو کی بورڈ انسٹال نہیں ہے تو اردو میں تبصرہ کرنے کے لیے ذیل کے اردو ایڈیٹر میں تبصرہ لکھ کر اسے تبصروں کے خانے میں کاپی پیسٹ کرکے شائع کردیں۔